See Our New Isolated Stimulator at Neuroscience 2015

New Model 4100 Isolated Stimulator to Be Unveiled at Neuroscience 2015

Joins us at Booth 1362 at Neuroscience 2015 where we’ll unveil our new Model 4100 Isolated High Power Stimulator that features more power, more capability, and more connectivity than the previous model.

The new Isolated High Power Stimulator packs a punch in terms of power and capabilities. With an internal constant current/voltage isolator, easy-to-use controls, and complete computer connectivity (iOS, OSx, Windows, Android, and Ethernet), the 4100 is ready to be your lab’s workhorse.

Purchase of Model 4100 Isolated Stimulator Includes iPad AirThe Model 4100 is highly flexible and can deliver stimulus trains comprised of monophasic, biphasic, ramps, and/or user-generated custom waveforms. In addition, the Model 4100 stimulator can deliver traditional protocols such as LTP/LTD stimulation studies, paired pulses protocols, and stepped pulses.

The output may be switched between constant current and constant voltage modes. The high-power output signal is isolated thereby eliminating the need to purchase expensive external stimulus isolation units.

Swing by booth 1362 and learn more about the new stimulator.

Dr. Jonathan Bakin and Dr. David Mittmann will be on hand to answer any questions you might have about our lines of programmable stimulators, extracellular and intracellular amplifiers, patch clamp instrumentation, data acquisition solutions, behavior tracking systems, electrodes and electrode supplies.

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Meet the Scientist: Dr. David Mittmann


In the second installment of our “Meet the Scientist” series, we introduce Dr. David Mittmann, A-M Systems’ chief engineer.

Dr. Mittmann’s interest in bioengineering began while studying electrical engineering at Oregon State. He began work at W.L. Gore & Associates in Flagstaff, Arizona, helping develop artificial arterial grafts that were seeded with cryogenically preserved endothelial cells.

At the University of Akron for his master’s, Dr. Mittmann helped develop physical and mathematical models of unsteady fluid flow in anatomical structures.

His work at Akron City Hospital—developing bioartificial pancreas using semipermeable membranes seeded with islet cells—brought him in touch with Dr. Jeff Wenstrup of Northeast Ohio Medical University. Dr. Wenstrup’s work on neural mechanisms underlying hearing and acoustically guided behaviors intrigued Dr. Mittmann, who completed his doctorate under his guidance.


An avid hiker and a mountain climber, Dr. Mittmann stands above Mt. Baldy near Sequim, Washington. (Image Courtesy David Mittmann)

While working on his doctorate, Dr. Mittmann learned techniques for acoustic stimulation, single- and multiple-unit recording, histological techniques, and the instrumentation involved in those techniques. Dr. Mittmann continued his neurophysiology research as a post-doctoral fellow at the University of Washington working with Dr. Ellen Covey and Dr. Pete Casseday. Here he helped develop the techniques for in vivo patch clamping and sonar stimuli generation.

Returning to his roots in electrical engineering, Dr. Mittmann joined A-M systems in 1998 as the chief design engineer. Seventeen years later, he works with the design team to continually improve existing instruments while developing new products that best serve our customers’ requirements.

He has helped design over 10 instruments including intracellular (Model 3100), extracellular (Model 3600) and patch clamp amplifiers (Model 2400), and stimulators (Model 3800). In addition to the neurophysiology equipment, Dr. Mittmann helps design pulmonary and spirometry products, including calibration devices (3L Calibration Syringe), mouthpieces, nose clips, and breathing filters (HME filter).

Dr. Mittmann is on his way to the top of Mount Olympus (7,800 ft) in the Olympic National Park in Washington.

Dr. Mittmann is on his way to the top of Mount Olympus (7,800 ft) in the Olympic National Park in Washington.

In the community, Dr. Mittmann used his collegiate rowing expertise to help start the Olympic Peninsula Rowing Association in Port Angeles. He has enjoyed coaching all three of his kids over the years in soccer. He’s an advocate for the Olympic Peninsula, which he calls “one of the best places for backpacking, mountain biking, and trail running.”

In his spare time, he loves to help his wife with fast-growing adventure sports events, including the Olympic Adventure Trail Run  and the Big Hurt Port Angeles .

If you have questions about any A-M Systems instruments or products, would like to have a custom instrument designed for you, or want to join him at the next tandem bike rally, please contact him at

Selected Publications:

Wenstrup, J.J., Mittmann, D.H., and Grose, C.D. (1999) Inputs to combination-sensitive neurons of the inferior colliculus. Journal of Comparative Neurology 409:509-528.

Mittmann, D.H., Wenstrup, J.J. (1995) Combination-sensitive neurons in the inferior colliculus. Hearing Research 90:185-191

Donovan, F. M. McIlwain, R. W. Mittmann, D. H. Taylor, B. C.(1994)Experimental Correlations to Predict Fluid Resistance for Simple Pulsatile Laminar Flow of Incompressible Fluids in Rigid Tubes. Journal of Fluids Engineering 116:516-521

Mittman, D.H., Taylor, B.C., and Donovan, F.M. (1993) A critical study of the suitability of the one-dimensional model for determining steady state resistance in oscillatory flow of incompressible fluids in rigid tubes. ASME Forum on Unsteady Flows, FED-Vol. 157:201-206.

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Join Us at ATS 2015 Booth #512


A-M Systems CEO Art Green and Pulmonary Product Manager David Green will answer your questions at ATS 2015 in Denver. Stop by booth #512. (Image: A-M Systems)

We’re at booth 512 at ATS 2015 in Denver, where Art Green, A-M Systems’ chief executive, and Dave Green, the pulmonary product manager, will answer all your questions about how we can help design custom solutions for your clinical setting.

A-M Systems has been manufacturing high-quality pulmonary and respiratory products since 1976 with the goal of improving patient care and helping clinicians save time. Come by and learn more about custom pulmonary function test (PFT) kits and tailored calibration programs for your clinic.

We look forward to seeing you at ATS 2015!


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Meet the Scientist: Dr. Jonathan S. Bakin


Welcome to A-M Systems’ “Meet the Scientist” blog series. The purpose of this series is to introduce you to the wide variety of scientists who over the years have selected A-M Systems products for use in their laboratory research endeavors.

A-M Systems makes a concerted effort to develop long-lasting relationships with our customers, and we do so by offering well-performing instruments and accessories at fair and equitable pricing, in addition to offering support and research guidance when possible.

We want to be a partner in your research endeavors. To ensure that we are offering the best products we can, we also go out and visit our customers at their labs, to learn a bit more about their research endeavors, what they like about our gear, and what they don’t. This blog series will feature many of the scientists we have met during these trips, in addition to those we look forward to visiting!


The one time a neuroscientist has to wear a tie. (Dr. Jonathan Bakin/A-M Systems)


But the first two installments of this series will feature A-M Systems’ own scientists, the persons directly responsible for guiding neuroscience product development at A-M Systems. This month, we will introduce you to Dr. Jonathan S. Bakin, A-M Systems Neuroscience and Physiology Product Manager. Dr. David Mittmann, A-M Systems Chief Engineer, will be profiled next month.

Dr. Jonathan Bakin’s first exposure to neuroscience was as an undergrad at University of California Irvine, where he began as an assistant in the laboratory of Dr. James McGaugh. While in Dr. McGaugh’s lab, Dr. Bakin developed a deep interest in the neurophysiology of learning and memory, with his first experiments being performed under the guidance of Dr. Paul Gold, using kindling as a model of learning.

While working in UCI’s Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, Dr. Bakin was exposed to other laboratories, including those of Dr. Norman Weinberger and Dr. Gary Lynch. Dr. Bakin’s interests in electrophysiology led him to joining Dr. Weinberger’s laboratory, where he stayed to complete his doctorate investigating and learning-induced plasticity in the receptive field properties of auditory cortex neurons of rats and guinea pigs.

During this period, Dr. Bakin learned a variety of techniques, but the mainstay of his work was single- and multiple-unit recording in awake behaving animals with extensive classical conditioning and behavioral analysis. Following his time at Irvine, Dr. Bakin continued his interest in the mechanisms underlying behavior when he pursued a Post-Doctoral appointment at Rockefeller University with Dr. Charles Gilbert. Paired with Dr. Ken Nakayama, Dr. Bakin investigated the responses of V1 and V2 neurons to illusory contours in behaving primates.

One of the lessons Dr. Bakin learned under Dr. Weinberger is how every instrument has built-in biases and assumptions, and if you don’t understand what they are, and how they impact the performance of that instrument, then you weaken your ability to properly interpret your data. Contemporary instruments are far beyond the simple op-amp buffer circuits of 30 years ago, making this lesson even more applicable today.

During grad school, Dr. Bakin continually developed new instrumentation for use in his experiments, including designing and building his own portable, automated, calibrated, auditory stimulus delivery system; an automated whisker stimulator for use in barrel cortex research; and timing control circuitry to control stimulus and reward delivery in both operant and classical condition experiments.

This exposure to laboratory instrumentation, combined with his extensive exposure to neuropharmacological, neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral techniques made him a highly qualified candidate during A-M Systems search for a new Neuroscience Product Manager. Dr. Bakin joined A-M Systems in the summer of 2000, bringing nearly 20 years of lab experience with him in his role as “Defender of the Customer”. His current job responsibilities include guiding the design of new instruments, the selection of new products to offer, assisting customers in system design, and general technical support.

So, if you have any questions about any of A-M Systems instruments or products, or you would like to suggest new instruments or accessories for A-M Systems to manufacture, please feel free to contact Dr. Bakin at

Selected Publications:

Bakin JS, Nakayama K, and Gilbert CD (2000) Visual Responses in Monkey Areas V1 and V2 to Three-Dimensional Surface Configurations, Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 8188-8198

Weinberger NM, and Bakin JS (1998) Learning-Induced Physiological Memory in Adult Primary Auditory Cortex: Receptive Field Plasticity, Model, and Mechanisms. Audiol Neurooto, 3:145–167

Bakin JS, and Weinberger NM (1996) Induction of a physiological memory in the cerebral cortex by stimulation of the nucleus basalis. PNAS 93, 11219-24

Bakin JS, South DA, and Weinberger NM (1996) Induction of receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex of the guinea pig during instrumental avoidance conditioning. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110, 905-913

Bakin JS, Kwon MC, Masino SA, Weinberger NM, and Frostig, RD (1996) Functional organization of auditory cortex demonstrated by intrinsic signal optical imaging. Cerebral Cortex, 6, 120-130.

Bakin JS, Lepan B, and Weinberger NM (1992) Sensitization induced receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex is independent of CS-modality. Brain Research 577, 226-235.

Bakin JS, and Weinberger NM. Classical conditioning induces CS-specific receptive field plasticity in the auditory cortex of the guinea pig (1990) Brain Research 536, 271-286.

Weinberger JS, Ashe JH, Metherate R, McKenna TM, Diamond DM, and Bakin JS (1990) Retuning auditory cortex by learning: A preliminary model of receptive field plasticity. Concepts in Neuroscience, 1, 91-131.

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Researchers Produce First Map of Microbes in NYC Subway


(Relative amount of DNA found in the New York subway system form bacteria associated with the human body. Courtesy: Weill Cornell Newsroom)

The first-ever city-wide map of microbial diversity shows that half of all DNA on the New York City subway system’s surfaces match no known organism, and that about 10 percent of all sequenced DNA matched those related to the respiratory tract.

Results of the massive undertaking, published in Cell Systems, are part of an ongoing PathoMAP project to create a molecular portrait of New York City.

The majority of the identified bacterial, viral, fungal and animal species were harmless species that were commonly found on human skins or in the gastrointestinal tract. There were, however, DNA fragments of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), Yersinia pestis (Bubonic plague), Staphylococcus aureus, and live methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) at some of subway stations.

S. aureus is commonly found on human skins as well as in the airways and doesn’t always cause diseases. Some strains, such as the antibiotic-resistant ones, may lead to complications.

“Despite finding traces of pathogenic microbes, their presence isn’t substantial enough to pose a threat to human health,” Dr. Christopher Mason, the study’s senior investigator was quoted as saying. “The presence of these microbes and the lack of reported medical cases is truly a testament to our body’s immune system, and our innate ability to continuously adapt to our environment.

The researchers also analyzed human DNA samples left on the surfaces of the subway system and were able to successfully predict the U.S. Census demographics of a neighborhood.

The study found mostly African American and Yoruban alleles at Canarsie station in Brooklyn, while they found Mexican, Colombian and Puerto Rican alleles in a primarily Hispanic and Amerindian area of Bronx. In Midtown Manhattan, they noted an increase in British, Tuscan and other European alleles with some potentially Chinese alleles.

“This provides a forensic ability to learn about the ancestry of the people who transit a station,” Dr. Mason was quoted as saying. “[A]nd it means the DNA people leave behind can reveal a clue as to the area’s demographics.”

Weill Cornell’s news release is available here. And the full study in Cell Systems can be downloaded here.

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1.2 M Britons May Have Been Wrongly Diagnosed with Asthma

(Courtesy U.S. NIH,: National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

(Courtesy U.S. NIH,: National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons)

More than 1.2 million people in the U.K. may have been wrongly diagnosed with asthma and may be taking unnecessary medications, according to a new draft clinical guideline for asthma diagnosis.

The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) said up to 30 percent of 4.1 million adults who are treated for asthma in the United Kingdom do not have clear evidence of the chronic condition, although some might have had it once.

About 235 million people worldwide suffer from asthma, according an estimate by the World Health Organization (WHO). Yet asthma remains under-studied, under-diagnosed and under-treated, and creates a significant burden on patients, their families and the health care systems.


  • Indoor allergens (dust mites, pollution, pet dander)
  • Outdoor allergens (pollens, molds)
  • Cockroach allergens
  • Tobacco smoke
  • Workplace chemical irritants
  • Air pollution
  • Respiratory infections
  • Cold air
  • Physical activity
  • Stress and strong emotions
  • Sulfites and preservatives

(Sources: WHO, CDC, Mayo Clinic)

Prof. Mark Baker, director of clinical practice at NICE, acknowledged that under-diagnosis is a concern along with misdiagnosis:

 Accurate diagnosis of asthma has been a significant problem which means that people may be wrongly diagnosed or cases might be missed in others. Our aim with this guideline is to give clarity and set out the most clinical and cost effective ways to diagnose and monitor asthma based on the best available evidence.

The 315-page draft guideline stresses that signs and symptoms alone are insufficient for an accurate diagnosis and recommends spirometry as the go-to clinical tool to check for obstructive airway disease.

The clinical guideline summarizes differential diagnosis in four flow charts that refers suspected occupational asthma to a specialist and recommends spirometry for those who are five and older.

Use spirometry as the first-line investigation for asthma in adults and young people older than 16 and children aged 5-16 years. Regard a forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) ratio of less than 70% as a positive test for obstructive airway disease (obstructive spirometry).

For those with obstructive spirometry, the watchdog recommends a bronchodilator reversibility (BDR) test to see if FEV1 improves by 12% or more and if the volume increases by 200 mL or more.

In the United States, 18.7 million adults and 6.8 million children live with asthma, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Asthma kills an estimated 3,345 people in the U.S. each year.

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New VBMax S-Series Features Smaller Mouthpiece for Children and Adults


VBMax™ S-Series spirometry filters were designed for pediatric use as well as for situations where patients feel more comfortable with a smaller mouthpiece during spirometry maneuvers.

vbmax-s-series-ridgesWe designed the oval-shaped mouthpiece of the VBMax S-Series PFT filters to be approximately 35% smaller than that of VBMax Standard PFT filters. With some updates to the overall design, we achieved our goals without sacrificing the low resistance to flow that has helped VBMax family of pulmonary function test filters become popular worldwide.

A smaller mouthpiece may also be helpful to patients with temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMD) or anyone with a limited maximum oral aperture. The S-Series VBMax also features three, equally spaced, superior and inferior ridges for a tighter and easier grip.

If you’d like a sample or have any question about the VBMax S-Series PFT Filters, please let us know.


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How to Choose the Right Nebulizer

Nebulizers, Compressors, Portable and Desktop

A modern nebulizer system turns liquid medications for respiratory diseases into a fine mist that can be inhaled. Your doctor may determine that a powered nebulizer, instead of a metered-dose inhaler alone, may help you maximize the use of the inhaled medication to treat and manage asthma, COPD, cystic fibrosis and other respiratory conditions.

Desktop nebulizer systems are designed for home use and tend to be larger but cheaper.

Mabis MiniComp

Your doctor and respiratory therapist are the best resource for helping you choose the right nebulizer type or system that works with your prescribed medications. Still their recommendation might be broad and generic. They also might not take your lifestyle into consideration. Most consumer nebulizers on the market today fall into two categories:

Desktop Nebulizer Systems

  • Often require a firm, flat surface and AC power for indoor use
  • May have built-in compartments, therefore can be bulkier, to store oxygen tubing, medication cups and electrical cords
  • Likely based on proven piston-pump technology (see below) to generate mist
  • May be weighted at the bottom to increase stability for pediatric use
Portable nebulizers are handheld and have multiple power sources.

Portable nebulizers are handheld and have multiple power sources.

Portable and/or Handheld Systems

  • Are designed for handheld operation at home or on the go
  • May use piston-pump or ultrasonic technology to generate mist (see below)
  • Offer multiple ways to power your nebulizer: with AC power, a car charger, or rechargeable battery

Advances in technologies have helped similar nebulizer systems consistently produce finer mists without the bulky housing of the past. If you use a nebulizer only at home, a bulky housing may not matter much. And they tend to be more cost effective. Nebulizer technologies fall largely into three categories:

Piston-Pump Compressor Nebulizers (Jet Nebulizers)

  • High-velocity air created by a piston-powered compressor helps aerosolize liquid medication in the nebulizer cup so you can inhale the medication as a mist
  • Tends to be heavier and noisier, but cheaper, than ultrasonic nebulizers

Ultrasonic Wave Nebulizer

  • Vibrating a metal plate at ultrasonic frequencies creates a mist in the medication cup, which is then mixed with air for easy inhalation
  • Creates slightly smaller and more uniform aerosols than compressor nebulizers
  • Operates almost silently, comes in compact, portable forms, and costs more than jet nebulizers

Ultrasonic Vibrating Mesh Technology Nebulizer (“Mesh” Nebulizer)

  • A membrane, or mesh, with thousands of tiny holes vibrates at ultrasonic frequency to pump out a mist which is then mixed with air for inhalation
  • Operates nearly silently, comes in compact, portable forms, creates uniform particles with little waste
  • The most expensive of all types of nebulizers

Disposable parts are also important to keep in mind when choosing a nebulizer system.

Air filters: Nebulizer compressors usually require an air filter that should be replaced every 30 days or whenever it becomes dirty.

Nebulizers: Manufacturers recommend that disposable nebulizers be replaced every two weeks, while reusable nebulizers be replaced every six months. They should still be cleaned regularly according to manufacturer instructions.

Cleaning and Maintenance: Cleaning instructions vary according to manufacturer and the technology used in a nebulizer system. Regular cleaning and maintenance go a long way in helping you get the most use of your nebulizer system.

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Karl Deisseroth Earns Keio Medical Science Prize for Optogenetics

Keio Prize Awarded to Karl DeisserothKarl Deisseroth was chosen as one of two recipients of this year’s prestigious Keio Medical Science Prize for his “enormous contributions towards the fundamental understanding of brain function in health and disease,” Keio University announced yesterday.

Keio University lauded his efforts in inventing optogenetics, which has been adopted rapidly as a tool to precisely target and demonstrate “causal relationship between neuronal circuits and behavior.”

Thus, Dr. Deisseroth first provided “a method by which all neurons of just one type could be activated or inactivated, leaving the others more or less unaltered” (Francis Crick, 1979), which had been a long-required task in the field of neuroscience.

Optogenetics has further permitted us to control intracellular signals such as calcium and cAMP signals, and thus it can be widely applied to biomedical and life science research. By making optogenetics a reality and leading this new field, Dr. Deisseroth has made enormous contributions towards the fundamental understanding of brain function in health and disease.

“It is a tremendous honor to receive the 2014 Keio Medical Science Prize, in recognition of our efforts to develop optogenetics,” Deisseroth told Keio University. “Prize is particularly meaningful because optogenetics originated as a tool to study the basic science of biology, not medical illness.”

But optogenetic investigations into forms of Parkinson’s in rodent models have already helped neurosurgeons better target implanted stimulating electrodes. Some Parkinson’s patients receive implanted electrodes as part of their treatment to reduce symptoms. However, the precise neuronal connections to target had been up for debate–until optogenetics helped pinpoint the wiring.

“Now neurosurgeons are finding that placing their electrical contacts to target connections gives better results in treating symptoms in people with Parkinson’s and many other conditions,” Deisseroth told Standord News Service in an interview.

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Spirometry Data Coming to Your iPhone

Apple's decision to add spirometry data types could herald a new era of portable spirometers.

Apple’s decision to add spirometry data types could herald a new era of portable spirometers.

The addition of three spirometry data types to Apple’s iOS 8 HealthKit, announced ahead of Apple’s iPhone 6 launch event next Tuesday, may herald a new era of personal medical devices designed for monitoring asthma, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and other respiratory conditions.

By offering recognition of data types that can be gathered from sleep monitors and portable spirometers, Apple’s HealthKit goes beyond common apps that track, calculate and store fitness- and nutrition-related data.

Spirometry, which measures your lung capacity as well as various functions, remains the gold standard in diagnosing and monitoring asthma, chronic bronchitis, emphysema and pulmonary fibrosis.

In the release notes of iOS 8 Beta 5, Apple announced that “Spirometry data types are now available in HealthKit.” An iPhone alone cannot measure your lung functions or diagnose COPD, for example. But the availability of spirometry data types allows software and medical device developers to design apps and portable spirometers that pass the data to an iPhone for recognition.

So far three basic spirometry data types have been added to HealthKit:

  • HKQuantityTypeIdentifierForcedExpiratoryVolume1
  • HKQuantityTypeIdentifierForcedVitalCapacity
  • HKQuantityTypeIdentifierPeakExpiratoryFlowRate
MySpiroo, a portable spirometer developed in Poland by Piotr Bajtala and Dr. Lukasz Koltowski, plugs into an iPhone. (Image courtesy MySpiroo)

MySpiroo, a portable spirometer developed in Poland by Piotr Bajtala and Dr. Lukasz Koltowski, plugs into an iPhone. (Image courtesy MySpiroo)

In a move seen as a push to develop a platform for health-related software and hardware, Apple has recently hired a team of medical device experts, including Roy Raymann, a sleep researcher and founder of the Philips Sleep Experience Lab, and Divya Nag, dubbed “a rising star in the medical device community” and an expert in regulatory affairs.

Even before Apple’s recognition of spirometry as an important diagnostic and monitoring tool, developers around the world have been looking for ways to turn an iPhone into a pocket-sized spirometer.

The Respi Project, a graduate of the DreamIt Health accelerator at Johns Hopkins University, wants to help patients monitor lung conditions constantly from anywhere.

The Respi Project, a graduate of the DreamIt Health accelerator at Johns Hopkins University, wants to help patients monitor lung conditions constantly from anywhere.

As mentioned here previously, researchers at University of Washington’s Ubiquitous Computing Lab created SpiroSmart, a software that measures FEV1, FVC and PEF using only a user’s lip reverberation.

In Poland, Piotr Bajtala and Dr. Lukasz Koltowski are wrapping up their development of MySpiroo, a portable spirometer designed to relay its spirometry data to an iPhone through the earphone jack. MySpiroo so far can measure FEV, FVC, PEF, MVV, SVC, TLC, FRC, RV, ERV and more.

The Respi Project, a graduate of the DreamIt Health accelerator at Johns Hopkins University, has also designed a portable spirometer for iPhones with the goal of allowing patients to monitor their lungs from anywhere at any time.

These personal, portable spirometers do not replace consultations with and diagnoses by a physician. However, Apple’s recognition of spirometry as an important tool in managing and monitoring chronic lung conditions is likely to help empower patients living with asthma and COPD.

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